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Extremely light Ge-based mat'l aimed at hybrid solar cells

Posted: 09 Dec 2015     Print Version  Bookmark and Share

Keywords:Technical University of Munich  solar cell  germanium  rechargeable batteries 

Researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and the Ludwig Maximillians University of Munich (LMU) have come up with an innovative way to produce extremely thin and robust, yet highly porous semiconductor layers. According to them, the material shows potential for developing small, light-weight, flexible solar cells, for instance, or electrodes to enhance the performance of rechargeable batteries.

The coating on the wafer that Thomas Fassler, professor and chair of inorganic chemistry with a focus on novel materials at TU Munich, holds in his hands glitters like an opal. And it has amazing properties: It is hard as a crystal, exceptionally thin and, since it is highly porous, light as a feather.

By integrating suitable organic polymers into the pores of the material, the scientists can custom tailor the electrical properties of the ensuing hybrid material. The design not only saves space, it also creates large interface surfaces that improve overall effectiveness.

Thomas Fassler

Thomas Fassler

"You can imagine our raw material as a porous scaffold with a structure akin to a honeycomb. The walls comprise inorganic, semiconducting germanium, which can produce and store electric charges. Since the honeycomb walls are extremely thin, charges can flow along short paths," said Fassler.

The new design: bottom-up instead of top-down

But, to transform brittle, hard germanium into a flexible and porous layer the researchers had to apply a few tricks. Traditionally, etching processes are used to structure the surface of germanium. However, this top-down approach is difficult to control on an atomic level. The novel procedure solves this problem.

Together with his team, Fassler established a synthesis methodology to fabricate the desired structures very precisely and reproducibly. The raw material is germanium with atoms arranged in clusters of nine. Since these clusters are electrically charged, they repel each other as long as they are dissolved. Netting only takes place when the solvent is evaporated.

This can be easily achieved by applying heat of 500°C or it can be chemically induced, by adding germanium chloride, for example. By using other chlorides like phosphorous chloride the germanium structures can be easily doped. This allows the researchers to directly adjust the properties of the resulting nanomaterials in a very targeted manner.

Tiny synthetic beads as nanotemplates

Germanium nanofilm

Filled with suitable organic polymers, the highly porous germanium nanofilm becomes a hybrid solar cell (Photo: Andreas Battenberg)

To give the germanium clusters the desired porous structure, the LMU researcher Dina Fattakhova-Rohlfing has developed a methodology to enable nanostructuring: Tiny polymer beads form three-dimensional templates in an initial step.

In the next step, the germanium-cluster solution fills the gaps between the beads. As soon as stable germanium networks have formed on the surface of the tiny beads, the templates are removed by applying heat. What remains is the highly porous nanofilm.

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