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Designing a low-cost USB interface for an uninterruptable power supply with the Cypress Semiconductor CY7C63001 USB controller

Posted: 29 Mar 2001     Print Version  Bookmark and Share

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Cypress Semiconductor Corporation 7 3901 North First Street 7 San Jose 7 CA 95134 7 408-943-2600

April 13, 1998

Designing a Low-Cost USB Interface for an Uninterruptable

Power Supply with the Cypress Semiconductor CY7C63001

USB Controller

Introduction

The Universal Serial Bus (USB) is an industrial standard se-

rial interface between a computer and peripherals such as a

mouse, joystick, keyboard, UPS, etc. This application note

describes how a cost-effective USB Uninterruptable Power

Supply Interface (UPS) can be built using the Cypress Semi-

conductor single-chip CY7C63001 USB controller. The docu-

ment starts with the basic operations of an uninterruptable

power supply followed by an introduction to the CY7C63001

USB controller. A schematic of the CY7C63001 USB control-

ler to the RS-232 of the UPS connection can be found in the

Hardware Implementation Section.

The software section of this application note describes the

architecture of the firmware required to implement the USB

UPS functions. Several sample code segments are included

to assist in the explanation. Please contact your local Cypress

sales office for a copy of the firmware.

This application note assumes that the reader is familiar with

the CY7C63001 USB controller and the Universal Serial Bus.

The CY7C63001 data sheet is available from the Cypress

web site at www.cypress.com. USB documentation can be

found at the USB Implementers Forum web site at

www.usb.org.

USB UPS Basics

USB has been gaining popularity due to it's simple connec-

tion, plug and play feature, and hot insertion capability. This

application note shows how an RS-232 UPS (low speed serial

device) could be changed into a USB UPS using the

CY7C63001 controller as shown in Figure 1.

In this design the UPS configuration and communication to

the PC is all done through the USB interface. The RS-232

interface has a 2400 baud rate.

USB provides the plug-and-play feature that is not supported

in RS-232 and PS/2 interfaces. The USB interface uses a

four-pin connector with positive retention. A 28 AWG twisted

pair is used for differential signaling and two 20 to 30 AWG

wires are used to supply power and ground.

A simple UPS topology consists of a Battery system, a Power

Converter system, a main AC input flow and an AC output

flow. These are described in details in the "Report Descriptor"

part of the "Firmware Implementation" section. For more de-

tails refer to the "Universal Serial Bus Device Class Definition

and Usages Tables for Power Devices v. 0.9"

Introduction to CY7C63001

The CY7C63001 is a high performance 8-bit RISC microcon-

troller with an integrated USB Serial Interface Engine (SIE).

The architecture implements 34 commands that are opti-

mized for USB applications. The CY7C63001 has built-in

clock oscillator and timers as well as programmable current

drivers and pull-up resistors at each I/O line. High perfor-

mance, low-cost human-interface type computer peripherals

can be implemented with a minimum of external components

and firmware effort.

Clock Circuit

The CY7C63001 has a built-in clock oscillator and PLL-based

frequency doubler. This circuit allows a cost effective 6 MHz

ceramic resonator to be used externally while the on-chip

RISC core runs at 12 MHz.

Figure 1. UPS to PC Connection

PC

host

RS-232

ASIC /

USB Bus

C

UPS

7

6

0

1

micro-

controller

Y

C

3

0

Designing a Low-Cost USB UPS Interface

2

USB Serial Interface Engine (SIE)

The operation of the SIE is totally transparent to the user. In

the receive mode, USB packet decode and data transfer to

the endpoint FIFO are automatically done by the SIE. The SIE

then generates an interrupt request to invoke the service rou-

tine after a packet is unpacked.

In the transmit mode, data transfer from the endpoint and the

assembly of the USB packet are handled automatically by the

SIE.

General Purpose I/O

The CY7C63001 has 12 general purpose I/O lines divided

into 2 ports: Port 0 and Port 1. One such I/O circuit is shown

in Figure 2. The output state can be programmed according

to Table 1 below. Writing a "0" to the Data Register will drive

the output LOW and allow it to sink current.

Instead of supporting a fixed output drive, the CY7C63001

allows the user to select an output current level for each I/O

line. The sink current of each output is controlled by a dedi-

cated 8-bit Isink Register. The lower 4 bits of this register

contains a code selecting one of sixteen sink current levels.

The upper 4 bits are reserved and must be written as zeros.

The output sink current levels of the two I/O ports are differ-

ent. For Port 0 outputs, the lowest drive strength (0000) is

about 0.2 mA and the highest drive strength (1111) is about

1.0 mA. These levels are insufficient to drive LEDs.

Port 1 outputs are specially designed to drive high-current

applications such as LEDs. Each Port 1 output is much stron-

ger than their Port 0 counterparts at the same drive level set-

ting. In other words, the lowest and highest drive for Port 1

lines are 3.2 mA and 16 mA respectively.

Each General Purpose I/O (GPIO) is capable of generating

an interrupt to the RISC core. Interrupt polarity is selectable

on a per bit basis using the Port Pull-Up register. Setting a

Port Pull-Up register bit to "1" will select a rising edge trigger

for the corresponding GPIO line. Conversely, setting a Port

Pull-Up register bit to "0" will select a falling edge trigger. The

interrupt triggered by a GPIO line is individually enabled by a

dedicated bit in the Port Interrupt Enable registers. All GPIO

interrupts are further masked by the Global GPIO Interrupt

Enable bit in the Global Interrupt Enable register

The Port Pull-Up registers are located at I/O address 0x08

and 0x09 for Port 0 and Port 1 respectively. The Data registers

are located at I/O address 0x00 and 0x01 for Port 0 and Port

1 respectively. The Port 0 and Port 1 Interrupt Enable regis-

ters are at addresses 0x04 and 0x05 respectively.

Hardware Implementation

The UPS USB interface is implemented as shown in Figure

6. A 7.5-K resistor is used to pull up the D- line to 5V. This

signals to the host that this is a low speed device upon plug-in.

The interface to the RS-232 is done through two GPIO pins

where bit banging is used.

RS-232C Electrical Characteristics

This design implements the following electrical characteris-

tics:

7 110 VDC Signaling Rails

7 Three-wire Interface

Transmit Data

Receive Data

Signal Ground

7 No Hardware Handshake

The use of an RS-232 level translator, that requires a single

+5 VDC supply, provides a simple and effective hardware in-

terface to the serial bus. This device uses voltage doubling

and inversion techniques to provide the 110 VDC signaling

rails required by this design. The schematic for this device

connection is shown in Figure 7.

Table 1. Programmable Output State

Port Data bit Port Pull-up bit Output State

0 X Sink current "0"

1 0 Pull-up resistor "1"

1 1 High-Z

Figure 2. One General Purpose I/O Line

GPIO

Pin

VCC

Isink

DAC

Port Isink

Register

Port Data

Register

Port Pull-Up

Register

16 K

Schmitt

Trigger

Data Bus

Designing a Low-Cost USB UPS Interface

3

A simple three wire interface minimizes the hardware require-

ments and reduces the complexity of the firmware design.

RS-232C Serial Data Transfer Protocol

This design supports the following features:

7 2400 Baud

7 10-Bit Frame

1 Start, 8 Data, 1 Stop

7 No Parity

7 Half Duplex Mode

By limiting the supported protocol to a single set of features,

implementation of the design is simplified and data stability is

ensured.

At the 2400-baud data rate, the design produces a 10-bit

frame in 4.17 milliseconds thus transferring an ASCII charac-

ter approximately every 5 milliseconds.

The data is "framed" by a beginning active LOW start bit and

an ending active HIGH stop bit.

The use of 8 data bits provides access to the full range of the

256 character Extended ASCII set.

The data is transmitted onto the serial data bus starting with

the least significant bit and progressing to the most significant

bit.

Currently the design does not support parity checking.

The half duplex mode of communications supports exclusive

transmit and receive operations only. Therefore data flow di-

rection on the bus must be predetermined.

An ASCII Carriage_Return/Line_Feed character pair is ap-

pended to the end of each character string to signal the end

of transmission.

Figure 3 illustrates the timing relationships of the elements

that compose a serial data frame.

Serial Interface Transmit Protocol

The transmit routine uses the 128-5s interrupt, generated by

the built-in timer, to generate the outgoing serial data stream.

During the transmit operation a character string is placed in

the transmit buffer and the ASCII Carriage_Return/

Line_Feed character pair is appended to end.

The first character is copied into the transmit register and the

transmit routine is called.

A low start bit is generated on the first occurrence of the

128-5s interrupt and the data is then shifted onto the bus, LSB

first, based on a count of the number of interrupts that have

occurred. After the MSB of the data has been transmitted, an

active HIGH stop bit is driven onto the bus to complete the

frame. The bus is continually driven HIGH until the start bit of

the next frame is transmitted.

Each character is then copied in turn to the transmit register

and the transmit routine is called repeatedly until the transmit

buffer is empty.

Upon completion of the transmit operation, the main routine

enables the GPIO interrupts and waits for a response in the

receive data line.

Figure 4 illustrates the use of the 128-5s interrupt to establish

a serial transmit data frame. Timing is based on the hexadec-

imal count of the number of interrupts from the start of the

transmit frame.

Serial Interface Receive Protocol

The receive routine uses the GPIO interrupt and the 128-5s

interrupt, generated by the built-in timer, to process the in-

coming serial data stream.

When the receive routine is called, GPIO interrupts are en-

abled, allowing a received start bit to signal the beginning of

the first data frame.

Figure 3. RS-232C Serial Data Frame

Figure 4. Transmit Serial Data Frame

Start StopBit 1Bit 0 Bit 2 Bit 3 Bit 4 Bit 5 Bit 6 Bit 7

0 5s 417 5s 834 5s 1251 5s 1668 5s 2085 5s 2502 5s 2919 5s 3336 5s 3753 5s 4170 5s

Start StopBit 1Bit 0 Bit 2 Bit 3 Bit 4 Bit 5 Bit 6 Bit 7

00h

384 5s 896 5s 1280 5s 1664 5s 2048 5s 2560 5s 2944 5s 3328 5s 3712 5s 4224 5s0 5s

03h 07h 0Ah 0Dh 10h 14h 17h 1Ah 1Dh 20h

Designing a Low-Cost USB UPS Interface

4

The start bit is synchronized to the subsequent 128-5s inter-

rupt and checked for validity. The following data bits are sam-

pled, based on the count of 128-5s interrupts, at the near

midpoint of the frame and shifted into the receive register. The

stop bit is sampled and checked for validity.

If a valid frame (start bit = `0', stop bit = `1') is detected, the

receive register contents are copied into the receive buffer. If

an invalid frame is detected a flag is set indicating a framing

error and the receive operation continues.

The received data is compared to the value of the ASCII

Line_Feed character (0Ah). If the Line_Feed character is de-

tected, the receive operation ends and the firmware returns

to the calling routine. If the Line_Feed character is not detect-

ed the receive operation continues to accept characters and

place them in the receive buffer.

The ASCII Carriage_Return character (0Dh) is retained, as a

string terminator, in the receive buffer for further data pro-

cessing.

If an invalid frame was detected, as indicated by the framing

flag, the receive buffer is reinitialized and the transmit/receive

cycle is repeated.

Figure 5 illustrates the use of the 128-5s interrupt to establish

a serial receive data frame.

Figure 5. Receive Serial Data Frame

Start StopBit 1Bit 0 Bit 2 Bit 3 Bit 4 Bit 5 Bit 6 Bit 7

0 5s 128 5s 640 5s 1152 5s 1536 5s 1920 5s 2304 5s 2816 5s 3200 5s 3584 5s 3968 5s

00h 01h 05h 09h 0Ch 0Fh 12h 16h 19h 1Ch 1Fh

Designing a Low-Cost USB UPS Interface

5

Figure 6. Hardware Implementation

Designing a Low-Cost USB UPS Interface

6

Figure 7. Electrical Schematic Diagram--Serial Interface Modification

VCC

+5V to +10V

Voltage Doubler

V+

C1-

C1+

+10V to -10V

Voltage Inverter

C2+

C2-

V-

T1

T2

R1

R2

GND

400 K

400 K

5 K

5 K

5

4

1

3

11

10

12

9 8

13

7

14

15

16

6

2

RxD

TxD

Signal

Gnd

+5V

0.1-5F 6.3V

0.1-5F 6.3V

0.1-5F 6.3V

0.1-5F 6.3V

DB-9

ICL232CPE

P0.0 / TxD

P0.7 / RxD

To

RS-232C

Bus

From

M8 5Controller

2

3

5

JP-2 Pin 1

JP-2 Pin 8

N/C

N/C

N/C

N/C

N/CN/C

N/C

Designing a Low-Cost USB UPS Interface

7

Firmware Implementation

USB Interface

All USB Human Interface Device (HID) class applications fol-

low the same USB start-up procedure. The procedure is as

follows (see Figure 8):

Device Plug-in

When a USB device is first connected to the bus, it is powered

but remains non-functional waiting for a bus reset. The pull-up

resistor on D- notifies the hub that a low-speed (1.5 Mbps)

device has just been connected.

Bus Reset

The host recognizes the presence of a new USB device and

resets it (see Figure 9).

Enumeration

The host sends a SETUP packet followed by IN packets to

read the device description from default address 0. When the

description is received, the host assigns a new USB address

to the device. The device begins responding to communica-

tion with the newly assigned address, while the host contin-

ues to ask for information about the device description, con-

figuration description and HID report description. Using the

information returned from the device, the host now knows the

number of data endpoints supported by the device. At this

point, the process of enumeration is completed. See

Figures 10, 11, and 12

Figure 8. USB Start-Up Procedure

Device Plug-in

Bus Reset

Enumeration

Data Acquisition/

Transfer

Figure 9. Reset Interrupt Service Routine

Figure 10. Endpoint 0 ISR

Start

7 Set up stack pointer

7 Enable all interrupts being used

Main Loop

7 Responds to

SETUP packet

according to the

parsing structure

N

Y

End Point 0

received a

SETUP packet

return

Designing a Low-Cost USB UPS Interface

8

Data Acquisition/Transfer

Data Transfer is done through several reports (five in our

case). When the host asks for one of these reports the device

translates the request into a set of UPS commands and sends

them across the RS-232 bus to the UPS. After the UPS re-

plies to all the commands the controller converts the re-

sponse to the required format. When the host issues IN pack-

ets to retrieve data from the device, the device returns the

converted and formatted data to the host. The host asks for

the reports through the get report request. Each report has a

unique ID. The subroutine that implements the get report re-

quest is shown in Figure 15.

The set report request ID 3 is used to test the UPS. When this

request is received from the host the microcontroller sends a

test command to the UPS over the RS-232 interface. This

command starts the testing process on the UPS. A get report

request ID 3 should then be issued by the host to be able to

read the results of the tests performed. The set report sub-

routine is implemented as shown in Figure 16.

Therefore, all data transfer between the host and the UPS

through the CY7C63001 microcontroller is done through end-

point 0 using the different reports. Since this is a low-speed

device, the maximum transfer rate is 8 bytes per ms.

The file Serial.asm contains the subroutines necessary to

communicate with the peripheral. The transmit, receive, delay

and various support subroutines are located here.

Further clarification of code functionality is included as com-

ments throughout the assembly source code.

Figure 11. USB Standard Request Parsing Structure

host to dev

dev recip

0x00

host to dev

inter recip

0x01

host to dev

endp recip

0x02

dev to host

dev recip

0x80

dev to host

inter recip

0x81

dev to host

endp recip

0x82

get status

0x00

clrfeature

0x01

setfeature

0x3

set addr

0x05

get desc

0x06

set desc

0x07

getconfig

0x08

set config

0x09

get inter

0x0A

set inter

0x0B

synch

0x0C

bmrequest type

brequest

Figure 12. USB HID Class Request Parsing Structure

host to dev

inter recip

0x21

dev to host

inter recip

0xA1

get_protocol

0x03

bmrequest type

brequest

get_idle

0x02

get_reportl

0x01

set_protocol

0x0B

set_idle

0x0A

set_reportl

0x09

Designing a Low-Cost USB UPS Interface

9

Firmware Flow for Transmit Routine

Figure 13 illustrates the flow of the assembly code for the

transmit routine of the Serial Interface design.

The routine is initially called to transmit the first character in

the receive buffer. It will continue to loop, sending further char-

acters, until it has reached the end of the buffer.

Note that the buffer terminates with an ASCII carriage_return/

line_feed pair. This indicates the end of data transmission to

the receiving device.

Firmware Flow for Receive Routine

Figure 14 illustrates the flow of the assembly code for the

transmit routine of the Serial Interface design.

Figure 13. Firmware Flow Diagram - Transmit

Start Bit = `0'Start

Bit

Data

Bit 0

Data

Bit 1

Data

Bit 2

Data

Bit 3

Stop

Bit

Data

Bit 7

Data

Bit 6

Data

Bit 5

Data

Bit 4

128-5s Count = 03h

128-5s Count = 07h

128-5s Count = 0Ah

128-5s Count = 0Dh

128-5s Count = 10h

128-5s Count = 20h

128-5s Count = 1Dh

128-5s Count = 1Ah

128-5s Count = 17h

128-5s Count = 14h

Stop Bit = `1'

MAINTransmit

128-5s Count = 00h

Designing a Low-Cost USB UPS Interface

10

The routine is initially entered after transmitting a command

on the RS-232 bus. The responding device begins transmit-

ting the requested data as an ASCII character string. The

receive routine continues to loop, accepting characters, until

it detects an ASCII carriage_return/line_feed pair. All re-

ceived characters are saved in a buffer except for the line-feed

character which is stripped. If a framing error occurs, the re-

ceive buffer will be flushed and the previous command will be

reissued to the responding device.

The resulting receive buffer contains the ASCII character

string terminated with the carriage_return character. This lim-

its the return character string to 15 characters in length.

Care should be taken to avoid accepting more than 15 char-

acters as the memory area succeeding the receive buffer is

used by the microcontroller's data stack. Should the periph-

eral send more than 15 characters in a string, or if a large data

Figure 14. Firmware Flow Diagram - Receive

GPIO Interrupt

MAIN

Start Bit = `0'

Start Bit = `1'

Receive

Start

Bit

Data

Bit 0

Data

Bit 1

Data

Bit 2

Data

Bit 3

Stop

Bit

Data

Bit 7

Data

Bit 6

Data

Bit 5

Data

Bit 4

128-5s Count = 01h

128-5s Count = 05h

128-5s Count = 09h

128-5s Count = 0Ch

128-5s Count = 0Fh

128-5s Count = 1Fh

128-5s Count = 1Ch

128-5s Count = 19h

128-5s Count = 16h

128-5s Count = 12h

Stop Bit = `1' Stop Bit = `0'

Receive

Buffer

Save

Data

Designing a Low-Cost USB UPS Interface

11

stack is required, the data memory space should be adjusted

to increase the area between the receive buffer and the data

stack pointer.

Note that the carriage-return character is retained as a delim-

iter for further processing of the receive buffer data.

USB Descriptors

As stated earlier, the USB descriptors hold information about

the device. There are several types of descriptors, which will

be discussed in detail below. All descriptors have certain

characteristics in common. Byte 0 is always the descriptor

length in bytes and Byte 1 is always the descriptor type. Dis-

cussion of these two bytes will be omitted from the following

descriptions. The rest of the descriptor structure is dependent

on the descriptor type. An example of each descriptor will be

given. Descriptor types are device, configuration, interface,

endpoint, string, report, and several different class descrip-

tors.

Device Descriptor

This is the first descriptor the host requests from the device.

It contains important information about the device. The size

of this descriptor is 18 bytes. A list follows:

7 USB Specification release number in binary-coded deci-

mal (BCD) (2 bytes)

7 Device class (1 byte)

7 Device subclass (1 byte)

7 Device protocol (1 byte)

7 Max packet size for Endpoint 0 (1 byte)

7 Vendor ID (2 bytes)

7 Product ID (2 bytes)

7 Device release number in BCD (2 bytes)

7 Index of string describing Manufacturer (Optional) (1 byte)

7 Index of string describing Product (Optional) (1 byte)

7 Index of string containing serial number (Optional) (1 byte)

7 Number of configurations for the device (1 byte)

Example of a device descriptor

Descriptor Length (18 bytes)

Descriptor Type (Device)

Complies to USB Spec Release (1.00)

Class Code (insert code)

Subclass Code (0)

Protocol (No specific protocol)

Max Packet Size for endpt 0 (8 bytes)

Vendor ID (Cypress)

Product ID (USB UPS)

Device Release Number (1.03)

String Describing Vendor (1)

String Describing Product (2)

String for Serial Number (3)

Possible Configurations (1)

Configuration Descriptor

The configuration descriptor is 9 bytes in length and gives the

configuration information for the device. It is possible to have

more than one configuration for each device. When the host

requests a configuration descriptor, it will continue to read

these descriptors until all configurations have been received.

A list of the structure follows:

7 Total length of the data returned for this configuration (2

bytes)

7 Number of interfaces for this configuration (1 byte)

7 Value used to address this configuration (1 byte)

7 Index of string describing this configuration (Optional) (1

byte)

7 Attributes bitmap describing configuration characteristics

(1 byte)

7 Maximum power the device will consume from the bus (1

byte)

Example of configuration descriptor

Descriptor Length (9 bytes)

Descriptor Type (Configuration)

Total Data Length (34 bytes)

Interfaces Supported (1)

Configuration Value (1)

String Describing this Config (None)

Config Attributes (Self powered)

Max Bus Power Consumption (100mA)

Interface Descriptor

The interface descriptor is 9 bytes long and describes the

interface of each device. It is possible to have more than one

interface for each device. This descriptor is set up as follows:

7 Number of this interface (1 byte)

7 Value used to select alternate setting for this interface (1

byte)

7 Number of endpoints used by this interface. If this number

is zero, only endpoint 0 is used by this interface (1 byte)

7 Class code (1 byte)

7 Subclass code (1 byte)

7 Protocol code (1 byte)

7 Index of string describing this interface (1 byte)

Example of interface descriptor

Descriptor Length (9 bytes)

Descriptor Type (Interface)

Interface Number (0)

Alternate Setting (0)

Number of Endpoints (1)

Class Code (insert code)

Subclass Code (0)

Protocol (No specific protocol)

String Describing Interface (None)

Endpoint Descriptor

The endpoint descriptor describes each endpoint, including

the attributes and the address of each endpoint. It is possible

to have more than one endpoint for each interface. This de-

scriptor is 7 bytes long and is set up as follows:

7 Endpoint address (1 byte)

7 Endpoint attributes. Describes transfer type (1 byte)

7 Maximum packet size this endpoint is capable of transfer-

ring (2 bytes)

7 Time interval at which this endpoint will be polled for data

(1 byte)

Example of endpoint descriptor

Designing a Low-Cost USB UPS Interface

12

Descriptor Length (7 bytes)

Descriptor Type (Endpoint)

Endpoint Address (IN, Endpoint 1)

Attributes (Interrupt)

Maximum Packet Size (8 bytes)

Polling Interval (10 ms)

HID (Class) Descriptor

The class descriptor tells the host about the class of the de-

vice. In this case, the device falls in the human interface de-

vice (HID) class. This descriptor is 9 bytes in length and is set

up as follows:

7 Class release number in BCD (2 bytes)

7 Localized country code (1 byte)

7 Number of HID class descriptor to follow (1 byte)

7 Report descriptor type (1 byte)

7 Total length of report descriptor in bytes (2 bytes)

Example of HID class descriptor

Descriptor Length (9 bytes)

Descriptor Type (HID Class)

HID Class Release Number (1.00)

Localized Country Code (USA)

Number of Descriptors (1)

Report Descriptor Type (HID)

Report Descriptor Length (63 bytes)

Report Descriptor

This is the most complicated descriptor in USB. There is no

set structure. It is more like a computer language that de-

scribes the format of the device's data in detail. This descrip-

tor is used to define the structure of the data returned to the

host as well as to tell the host what to do with that data.

A report descriptor must contain the following items: Input (or

Output or Feature), Usage, Usage Page, Logical Minimum,

Logical Maximum, Report Size, and Report Count. These are

all necessary to describe the device's data.

Input items are used to tell the host what type of data will be

returned as input to the host for interpretation. These items

describe attributes such as data vs. constant, variable vs. ar-

ray, absolute vs. relative, etc.

Usages are the part of the descriptor that defines what should

be done with the data that is returned to the host. There is

also another kind of Usage tag called a Usage Page. The

reason for the Usage Page is that it is necessary to allow for

more than 256 possible Usage tags. Usage Page tags are

used as a second byte which allows for up to 65536 Usages.

Logical Minimum and Logical Maximum are used to bound

the values that a device will return.

Report Size and Report Count define the structures that the

data will be transferred in. Report Size gives the size of the

structure in bits. Report Count defines how many structures

will be used.

Collection items are used to show a relationship between two

or more sets of data. End Collection items simply close the

collection.

In this UPS implementation the report descriptor contains the

following collections:

7 Main AC Flow Physical Collection

7 Output AC Flow Physical Collection

7 Battery System Physical Collection

7 Power Converter Physical Collection

-- AC Input Physical Collection

-- AC Output Physical Collection

Each one of these collections is sent to the host through a

different report and therefore each has a different report id.

In this UPS implementation these collections contain the fol-

lowing objects as well as the report ids:

7 The Main AC Flow Physical Collection contains:

-- Flow ID

-- Configuration Voltage

-- Configuration Frequency

-- Low Voltage Transfer (the minimum line voltage allowed

before the UPS system transfers to battery backup)

-- High Voltage Transfer (the maximum line voltage al-

lowed before the UPS system transfers to battery back-

up)

-- Manufacturer Name Index

-- Product Index

-- Serial Number Index

7 The Output AC Flow Physical Collection contains:

-- Flow ID

-- Configuration Voltage

-- Configuration Frequency

-- Configuration Apparent Power

-- Configuration Active Power (RMS)

-- Delay Before Startup

-- Delay Before Shutdown

7 The Battery System Physical Collection contains:

-- Battery System ID

-- Present Status (Used, Good)

-- Voltage

-- Temperature

-- Test

7 The Power Converter Physical Collection contains:

-- Power Converter ID

-- AC Input Physical Collection

-- AC Output Physical Collection

7 The AC Input Physical Collection contains:

-- Input ID

-- Flow ID

-- Present Status (Good)

-- Voltage

-- Frequency

7 The AC Output Physical Collection contains:

-- Flow ID

Designing a Low-Cost USB UPS Interface

13

-- Voltage

-- Frequency

-- Percent Load

-- Present Status (Overload, Boost, Buck)

An example of part of a report descriptor for a UPS can be

found below.

Example of part of the report descrip-

tor

Usage Page (Power Device)

Usage (UPS)

Collection (Application)

Usage Page (Power Device)

Usage (Flow)

Collection (Physical)

ReportID (1)

Usage (ConfigVoltage)

Report Size (16)

Report Count (1)

Unit (Volt)

UnitExponent (7)

Logical Minimum (0)

Logical Maximum (250)

Feature (Data,Variable,Ab-

solute)

End Collection

End Collection

It is important to note that all examples given here are merely

for clarification. They are not necessarily definitive solutions.

A more detailed description of all items discussed here as

well as other descriptor issues can be found in the "Device

Class Definition for Human Interface Devices (HID)" revision

1.0, "Universal Serial Bus Device Class Definition and Usage

Table for Power Devices" revision 0.9a and in the "Universal

Serial Bus Specification" revision 1.0, chapter 9. Both of these

documents can be found on the USB world wide web site at

http://www.usb.org/.

String Descriptors

String descriptors are used to specify any strings that need to

be sent to the host. They could be used for manufacturer

name, product and serial number, etc. They are optional and

are UNICODE encoded. An example of a string descriptor is

given below.

Example of string descriptor

Descriptor Length (in bytes)

Descriptor Type (string)

String

In this application string descriptors are implemented as dy-

namic except the language descriptor which is static and set

to "U.S. English". Dynamic descriptors are variable depend-

ing on the UPS connected. Data is sent from the RAM not

from the ROM. This allows us not to change the code when

connecting to a different UPS. The strings supported are the

Manufacturer name, product and serial number.

When the host sends a packet asking for one of the string

descriptors the controller will poll the UPS on the RS-232 bus

and get the string then send it to the host in the right format.

Note that unlike report descriptors that only describe the for-

mat of the data sent through reports, the string descriptors

actually include the string itself (there is no get string request).

The get string descriptor subroutine implementation is shown

in Figure 17.

Conclusion

USB has been gaining popularity due to its simple connec-

tion, plug and play feature, and hot insertion capability. The

two main enabling factors of the proliferation of the USB de-

vices are cost and functionality. The CY7C63001 meets both

requirements by integrating the USB SIE and multi-function

I/Os with a USB optimized RISC core. This application note

allows designers to easily convert an RS-232 UPS interface

to a USB UPS interface

Designing a Low-Cost USB UPS Interface

14

Figure 15. Get Report Subroutine

ASCII to BCD conversion

Return

Save results in appropriate bytes

Call Send_data subroutine

from the UPS

Receive the result

Y

N

error?

Y

N supported

request?

Y

N report

end?

fill byte with FFh

(Send data to host)

Send command on

Get Report

Check which report ID and

call the appropriate subroutine

RS-232 to the UPS

Designing a Low-Cost USB UPS Interface

15

Figure 16. Set Report Subroutine

Stall

Return

Send Test UPS command

Y

Nright

Set Report

report ID?

Designing a Low-Cost USB UPS Interface

) Cypress Semiconductor Corporation, 1998. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. Cypress Semiconductor Corporation assumes no responsibility for the use

of any circuitry other than circuitry embodied in a Cypress Semiconductor product. Nor does it convey or imply any license under patent or other rights. Cypress Semiconductor does not authorize

its products for use as critical components in life-support systems where a malfunction or failure may reasonably be expected to result in significant injury to the user. The inclusion of Cypress

Semiconductor products in life-support systems application implies that the manufacturer assumes all risk of such use and in doing so indemnifies Cypress Semiconductor against all charges.

Figure 17. Get String Descriptor Subroutine

Arrange String

Return

Get String Length

Send String Descriptor

and send command to

Check which string it is

Y

N

error?

Y

N supported

request?

fill byte with FFh

to the host

Get String Descriptor

Y

N

Language

String?

Send String from ROM

UPS through RS-232 interface

Receive Result from UPS





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