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Series protection for power-line transients

Posted: 07 Jun 2005     Print Version  Bookmark and Share


This app note describes a circuit that protects an n-channel power MOSFET against low and high voltages.



Series Protection for Power-Line Transients

This application note describes a circuit that protects an n-channel power

MOSFET against low and high voltages. It includes a high-side switch-driver

IC and fast-response, 3-transistor, overvoltage detector.

Voltage transients found on low-voltage power lines can sometimes attain amplitudes many

times the nominal voltage level. Those occurrences create the need for protection against the

application of improper power levels.

The usual way to protect sensitive circuitry against overvoltage is to add parallel clamps whose

high energy-absorption capability is preceded by fuses or other current-limiting devices. Other

cases require the use of high-voltage series protection (instead of parallel clamps) due to the

difficulty in resetting or replacing fuses, an inaccessible operating environment, or the need for

uninterrupted operation.

The series-protection circuit of Figure 1 turns the power switch off using a series-connected,

high-voltage, n-channel MOSFET power switch (Q1) and a fast overvoltage detector. The power

switch and series-connected power rectifier (D1) protect the load against high-voltage transients

and continuous overvoltage (up to 500V, of either polarity).

Figure 1. This circuit protects a load (connected to the right pair of terminals) against

undervoltage and high-voltage transients in the supply voltage (connected to the left pair of


In the circuit, which powers loads up to 1A from a nominal 12V power line, a high-side switch

driver (IC1) biases the power switch fully on. You can increase the maximum load current by

changing D1 and Q1. To guard against low supply voltage, IC1 includes an undervoltage-

lockout feature that allows operation only when the line voltage is above 10V. To protect against

overvoltage, the circuit includes a 3-transistor, no-bias-current, fast (50ns operation) overvoltage

detector that triggers when the input voltage reaches about 20V. At that time Q4 "crowbars" the

gate of the power switch to ground, turning it off hard.

Rising overvoltage first turns on zener diode D2, which protects the IC by clamping the voltage

across it to about 18V. Zener current flows through the 2.2k resistor, producing a base voltage

that turns on Q2. That action initiates a rapid sequence: Q3 turns on, which turns on Q4, which

turns off Q1 by quickly discharging its gate capacitance.

Circuit performance is illustrated by applying a 150V transient to the supply voltage while the

circuit output is delivering 1A at 12 Volts (Figure 2). The internal impedance of the transient

source is 1 , and the risetime of the applied voltage is 15s. The circuit draws 205A during

normal operation, including 35A by the undervoltage-lockout voltage-sensing divider and 175A

by IC1.

Figure 2. A 150V transient applied to VIN of the Figure 1 circuit has little effect on VOUT.

If you need high-temperature operation, note that the gate-current output of IC1 is relatively

limited. Your design calculations for high temperature should also pay close attention to leakage

currents contributed by the other circuit components.

A similar version of this article appeared in the October 14, 2004 issue of EDN magazine.

More Information

MAX1614: QuickView -- Full (PDF) Data Sheet -- Free Samples

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