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MEMS set to revolutionise apps

Posted: 16 Jan 2007     Print Version  Bookmark and Share

Keywords:microelectromechanical systems  MEMS  consumer devices  LCD 

Kahn: I predict that there will be 1000 crore MEMS chips in mobile phones by 2010.

MEMS have revolutionised every industry that has adopted them. This was according to presenters at the MEMS Executive Conference in November. For instance, the MEMS accelerometer has greatly enhanced the safety of automobiles with airbags. Likewise, the Nintendo Wii's motion-based controller has changed the gaming landscape, while Apple's iPhone has set a new standard for cellphones. Now, MEMS chips, combined with the smart software that uses them, are being designed into cellphones at a pace reminiscent of camera-phone adoption, enabling a new breed of consumer-pleasing electronic devices.

"I predict that there will be 1000 crore MEMS chips in mobile phones by 2010," said keynote speaker Philippe Kahn, chairman of Fullpower Technologies Inc. "The Wii and iPhone are just the beginning. Motion detection with MEMS accelerometers will soon enable all kinds of functions, such as shaking your cellphone to pick up a call: no buttons, no fingers, just simple, natural gestures."

Kahn invented the camera phone, founded Borland Software Corp., Starfish Software (acquired by Motorola in 1998) and Lightsurf (acquired by VeriSign in 2005). Kahn's latest startup company, Fullpower Technologies, provides a multitasking preemptive priority operating environment for consumer-device designers trying to utilise MEMS accelerometers, proximity sensors, ambient light detectors, pressure sensors, magnetometers (compass) and GPS chips, as well as MEMS pressure and flow-rate sensors for measuring heart rate, blood glucose and other health parameters.

"Everyone has experienced having to go through menu after menu until you get to the function you want; so if those can be done by shaking or tilting the phone, those are features that consumers will really want," said Russell Hannigan, director of product management at Microvision Inc. Microvision makes a MEMS projector-display chip that enables cellphones to project images on a wall.

Market evolution
According to presenter Jean-Christophe Eloy, founder and managing director of Yole Development, the global MEMS market in 2006 was about Rs.27,634.87 crore ($7 billion) and is expected to grow to more than Rs.43,426.23 crore ($11 billion) by 2011. In 2007, about 40 crore MEMS chip units were shipped or about 5 per cent of the total foundry market.

"We see the total MEMS market going to Rs.78,956.78 crore ($20 billion) by 2016, with a 13 per cent annual growth rate and about 70 per cent coming from semiconductor companies," said Eloy. "Venture capitalists are heavily investing in MEMS, too, putting about Rs.1,748.89 crore ($443 million) into MEMS companies in 2006, with 12 companies raising more than Rs.59.22 crore ($15 million) each."

The lion's share of those MEMS shipments are for inkjet printer heads, pressure sensors and accelerometers, but the shift to new types of MEMS sensors is accelerating at both startups and established semiconductor makers. For instance, right now there are only four sources of MEMS microphones: Akustica Inc., Knowles Acoustics, Sonion MEMS A/S and MEMS Technology Bhd. However, semiconductor makers worldwide are quickly jumping on the bandwagon.

"We know of more than 20 companies who are currently developing MEMS microphones. We see units growing from about 1.2 crore in 2006 to 30 crore by 2011," said Eloy. "To meet that demand, Omron, for instance, just bought an 8-inch fab from IBM for its MEMS microphones, which Omron plans to begin shipping this year."

The story is the same for other MEMS-chip categories, according to Eloy. For instance, tyre-pressure sensors were originally developed mainly by Infineon in Europe and at GE Novasensor in the United States. Now, there are 15 companies developing them worldwide, according to Eloy.

Emerging apps
New categories of MEMS devices are sprouting up, too. For instance, Discera Inc., Vectron International and SiTime Corp. used to be the only makers of MEMS timing chips, specialising in crystal-oscillator replacement at 1-125MHz. Now, Silicon Clocks Inc. and others are designing even higher RF devices. Yole estimates that the RF MEMS market will ramp up to Rs.1,579.14 crore ($400 million) by 2011.

"We also expect to see new kinds of MEMS devices, such as tiny speakers for earphones and specialised battery replacement chips this year," said Eloy.

Other new types of MEMS devices described at the MEMS Executive Conference include the interferometric modulator (iMoD) display from Qualcomm MEMS Technologies Inc. (QMT), which is as bright as an LCD, but requires no backlight and consumes comparatively little power. The iMoD display locates an optically resonant cavity housing a Fabry-Perot etalon, consisting of a thin-film stack and a deformable reflective membrane. Incident light reflects off both the thin-film stack at the top of the cavity and the reflective membrane at the bottom, allowing the phase-shifted wavelengths to selectively reinforce specific colors, thereby yielding light amplification without the filters and polarisers that cut down on transmitted light from LCDs.

Sugar-cube camera
Also described at the conference was a MEMS camera for cellphones that combines all the features of a normal-sized camera, such as zoom and autofocus, but in a package a fraction of the size of a sugar cube. Manufactured by startup Siimpel Corp., the camera uses tiny MEMS actuators to perform optical autofocus and zoom from within a housing with no external moving parts.

"We are ramping up our production capacity to be able to manufacture about 300,000 devices per month for mobile phone camera modules," said Siimpel founder Roman Gutierrez.

Siimpel has 5,000ft2 of Class 100 clean rooms, and more than 10,000ft2 of Class 10,000 assembly rooms.

Besides startups, established players such as General Electric are ramping up their MEMS manufacturing capabilities. GE claims, for instance a Rs.3,947.84 crore ($1 billion) in-house MEMS operation, and the company is also developing a wide variety of new MEMS devices, according to Brian Wirth, GE's global product manager for MEMS, microstructures and nanotechnologies.

"GE's Global Research Center is developing several new MEMS devices, including a MEMS Raman microspectrometer for chemical and biological analysis, a microfluidics identification system for life sciences and security, a MEMS microvalve for gas-flow control and a capacitive ultrasound transducer," Wirth said.

- R. Colin Johnson
EE Times

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