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Applying POSIX to real-time systems

Posted: 16 Mar 2002     Print Version  Bookmark and Share



Applying POSIX to real-time systems to the OS. The original POSIX standard defines interfaces to core functions such as file op- erations,processmanagement, signals, and devices. Subse- quent releases of POSIX have also been defined to cover real- time extensions and multi- threading. In a perfect world, because of the previously cited advan- tages, one would always choose astandard.However,inthereal world, a number of questions must be answered before decid- ing to use a standard. These in- clude: 7 Does the standard provide the functionality that my ap- plication needs? 7 Is the performance of the standard, or implementation of the standard, suitable for my application? 7 Do commercially available implementations of the stan- dard exist? In this article, I will discuss the usefulness of POSIX in real- timesystemsbylookingatthree factors: functionality, perfor- mance, and availability. Be- cause real-time systems typi- cally have stringent perfor- mance constraints, emphasis is placed on the performance of POSIX implementations. POSIX real-time OSs The POSIX family of standards includes over 30 individual In today's computing systems, it is becoming increasingly im- portant to design software with an open system architecture utilizing industry-adopted standards. The need to develop open systems is driven by three major factors. First, gone are the days when a single devel- oper could implement the en- tire system from scratch. Soft- ware development programs are growing in scale, requiring teams of increasing size. Sec- ond, software does not operate in isolation; it must co-exist with the vast amount of com- mercially available software. Last, the lifecycle of a software application is typically long, requiring numerous modifica- tions and updates as new fea- tures are added. An open software architec- tureaddressesthechallengesof today's software development process by defining standard software interfaces, which pro- mote interoperability and port- ability. Openly published stan- dard interfaces also reduce the cost of adding functionality in the future. Standards are pervasive in today's computer systems. New standards are constantly being defined to address the ever- changingstateofsoftwaretech- nology. A standard will not be effective if it is not used, or if it is gone tomorrow. To be effec- tive, a standard must be based on well-established technology and accepted by a wide portion of the industry. The original Portable Oper- atingSystemInterfaceforCom- puting Environments (POSIX) standard was first published in 1990. POSIX is based on UNIX, a well-established technology dating back to the early 1970s. POSIX defines a standard way for an application to interface standards, ranging from speci- ficationsforbasicOSservicesto specifications for testing the conformance of an OS to the standard.Thisarticlefocuseson those standards important to the development of real-time embedded systems. In this sec- tion I discuss real-time systems as well as give a brief review of the relevant POSIX standards. Real-time systems: A real-time system is one where the timeli- nessoftheresultofacalculation is important. Examples include military weapons systems, fac- tory control systems, and video and audio streaming. Real-time systems are typically catego- rized into two classes: hard and soft. In a hard real-time system the time deadlines must be met or the result of a calculation is invalid. For example, in a mis- sile tracking system, if the mis- sile is delayed, it may miss its intended target. The timing constraints in a soft real-time systemarenotasstringent.The resultofacalculationcanstillbe usefulifitdoesnotmeetitstim- ingdeadline.Audiostreamingis CPU1 CPU2 CPU3 CPU4 Real-time threadsTime shared threads and unbound interrupts Figure 1: Solaris processor binding and control StandardStandard NameName DescriptionDescription 1003.1a OS Definition Basic OS interfaces; includes support for: single process, multi process, job control, signals, user groups, file system, file attributes, file device management, file locking, device I/O, device-specific control, system database, pipes, FIFO and C language 1003.1b Real-time Functions needed for real-time systems; includes support extensions for: real-time signals, priority scheduling, timers, asynchro- nous I/O, prioritized I/O, synchronized I/O, file sync, mapped files, memory locking, memory protection, message passing, semaphores and shared memory 1003.1c Threads Functions to support multiple threads within a process; includes support for: thread control, thread attributes, priority scheduling, mutexes, mutex priority inheritance, mutex priority ceiling and condition variables 1003.1d Additional Additional interfaces; includes support for: new process real-time create semantics (spawn), sporadic server scheduling, extensions execution time monitoring of processes and threads, I/O advisory information, timeouts on blocking functions, device control and interrupt control 1003.1j Advanced More real-time functions including support for: typed real-time memory, nanosleep improvements, barrier synchronization, extensions reader/writer locks, spin locks and persistent notification for message queues 1003.21 Distributed Functions to support real-time distributed communication; real-time includes support for: buffer management, send control blocks, asynchronous and synchronous operations, bounded blocking, message priorities, message labels and implementation protocols 1003.2h High Services for Reliable, Available, and Serviceable (SRASS); availability includes support for: logging, core dump control, shut- down/reboot and reconfiguration TABLE 1 POSIX standards an example of a soft real-time system. If a packet of data is late or lost, the quality of the audio isdegraded,butthestreammay still be audible. Toguaranteethatthetiming requirements of a real-time sys- tem are met, the behavior and timing of the underlying com- puting system must be predict- able. The time required by all operationsmustbeboundedfor the timing of the system to be called predictable.This implies that the worst case timing of all operations is known. Some- times though, a system is called predictableonlyifitsworstcase timing is also very close to its average case timing. POSIX real-time related stan- dards: Of the more than 30 POSIX standards, the seven standards listed in Table 1 are especially relevant to the devel- opmentofreal-timeandembed- ded systems. The first three standards--1003.1a, 1003.1b, and 1003.1c--are the most widely supported. POSIX 1003.1adefinestheinterfaceto basic OS functions, and was the firsttobeadoptedin1990.Real- time extensions are defined in the standards 1003.1b, 1003.1d, 1003.1j, and 1003.21. However, the original real-time extensions,definedby1003.1b, are the only ones commonly implemented. Support for mul- tiple threads in a process is pro- vided in a separate standard, POSIX 1003.1c. POSIX also in- cludes support for high avail- ability in the 1003.1h standard. Commercial support for POSIX varies widely. Because POSIX 1003.1a is based on UNIX, any UNIX-based OS will naturally be very close to the standard. To be conformant to thePOSIXstandard,theOSand hardware platform have to be certified using a suite of tests. Currently, test suites exist only for POSIX 1003.1a. Because POSIX is structured as a set of optional features, OS vendors can choose to implement only portions of POSIX and still be POSIX compliant. Compliance only requires the vendor to state which features of POSIX are and are not implemented. This is a source of confusion because,formarketingreasons, almost all vendors report that they are POSIX compliant. POSIX profiles. Embedded systems typically have space and resource limitations, and an OS that includes all the fea- tures of POSIX may not be ap- propriate. The POSIX 1003.13 profile standard was defined to address these types of systems. POSIX 1003.13 does not con- tain any additional features; in- stead it groups the functions from existing POSIX standards into units of functionality. The profilesarebasedonwhetheror not an OS supports more than one process and a file system. The four current profiles are summarized in Table 2. POSIX real-time extensions. POSIX 1003.1b, as well as 1003.1d and 1003.1j, define ex- tensionsusefulfordevelopment of real-time systems. Functions definedintheoriginalreal-time extension standard 1003.1b are supported across a wider num- ber of OSs than the other two specifications. For this reason this article focuses on POSIX LISTINGLISTING 11 Creating and using a POSIX timer #include #include void timer_create(int num_secs, int num_nsecs) { struct sigaction sa; struct sigevent sig_spec; sigset_t allsigs; struct itimerspec tmr_setting; timer_t timer_h; /* setup signal to respond to timer */ sigemptyset(&sa.sa_mask); sa.sa_flags = SA_SIGINFO; sa.sa_sigaction = timer_intr; if (sigaction(SIGRTMIN, &sa, NULL) < 0) perror("sigaction"); sig_spec.sigev_notify = SIGEV_SIGNAL; sig_spec.sigev_signo = SIGRTMIN; /* create timer, which uses the REALTIME clock */ if (timer_create(CLOCK_REALTIME, &sig_spec, &timer_h) < 0) perror("timer create"); /* set the initial expiration and frequency of timer */ tmr_setting.it_value.tv_sec = 1; tmr_setting.it_value.tv_nsec = 0; tmr_setting.it_interval.tv_sec = num_secs; tmr_setting.it_interval.tv_sec = num_nsecs; if ( timer_settime(timer_h, 0, &tmr_setting,NULL) < 0) perror("settimer"); /* wait for signals */ sigemptyset(&allsigs); while (1) { sigsuspend(&allsigs); } } /* routine that is called when timer expires */ void timer_intr(int sig, siginfo_t *extra, void *cruft) { /* perform periodic processing and then exit */ } 1003.1b. The following items constitute the bulk of the fea- turesdefinedinPOSIX1003.1b: 7 Timers: periodic timers, de- livery is accomplished using POSIX signals 7 Priority scheduling: fixed priority preemptive schedul- ingwithaminimumof32pri- ority levels 7 Real-time signals: additional signalswithmultiplelevelsof priority 7 Semaphores: named and memory counting sema- phores 7 Memory queues: message passing using named queues 7 Shared memory: named memory regions shared be- tween multiple processes 7 Memory locking: functions to prevent virtual memory swappingofphysicalmemory pages Listing 1 shows C code for creating and using a POSIX timer. Creating a timer consists of two steps: specifying a signal that is to be delivered at timer expiration,andcreating/setting the timer itself. In this example we use the highest priority real- time signal (SIGRTMIN) to asynchronously call the timer handler routine. Two values must be specified for the timer: the initial expiration time (it_value) and the frequency (tv_sec). The structure (itimerspec)allowsnanosecond timespecification,however,ac- tual resolution is dependent on the system. The POSIX call clock_getres() can be used to determinetheactualresolution, typically 10ms or 1ms. POSIX1003.1bprovidessup- port for fixed priority preemp- tivescheduling.Tobecompliant with POSIX, an OS must imple- ment at least 32 priorities. POSIXdefinesthreescheduling policiestohandleprocessesrun- ning at the same priority. For SCHED_FIFO, processes are scheduled first in first out, and run until completion. For SCHED_RR,thescheduleruses atimequantumtoschedulepro- cesses in a round robin fashion. The SCHED_OTHER policy is also included to handle an implement ation-def ined scheduling policy. Because SCHED_OTHER is implemen- tation dependent, it is not por- tableacrossdifferentplatforms, and its use should be limited. POSIX uses named objects for several different mecha- nisms including semaphores, shared memory, and message queues.Thesenamesareanalo- gous, but independent, to names in the file system. For semaphores one process cre- ates the semaphore and other processes can attach to the semaphore using its name. Bothprocessescanperformsig- nal (sem_post) or wait (sem_wait) operations. POSIX threads. In POSIX, threads are implemented in an independent specification, which means that their specifi- cation is independent of the other real-time features. Be- cause of this, a number of fea- tures from the real-time specifi- cation are carried over to the thread specification. For ex- ample, priority scheduling is done on a per-thread basis, but ishandledinamannersimilarto schedulinginPOSIX1003.1b.A thread'spriorityandscheduling policyistypicallyspecifiedwhen it is created. The POSIX threadspecifica- tion defines functionality and/ or makes modifications to POSIX in the following areas: 7 Thread control: creation, de- letion, and management of individual threads 7 Priority scheduling: POSIX real-time scheduling ex- tended to include scheduling on a per thread basis; the scheduling scope is either done globally across all threads in all processes, or performed locally within each process 7 Mutexes: used to guard criti- cal sections of code; mutexes also include support for pri- orityinheritanceandpriority ceiling protocols to help pre- vent priority inversions 7 Condition variables: used in conjunction with mutexes, condition variables can be used to create a monitor syn- chronization structure 7 Signals: ability to deliver sig- nals to individual threads POSIX coverage in OS imple- mentations: Table 3 shows the Thread C Thread B Thread A Highest priority Lowest priority Thread C Interrupt Thread C Thread B Interrupt Thread B Thread A Interrupt Thread A Highest priority Lowest priority 256 user priorities are mapped to 512 user/interrupt priorities Figure 2 Lynx priority tracking Profiles Number of processes Threads File system 54 Multiple Yes Yes 53 Multiple Yes No 52 Single Yes Yes 51 Single Yes No TABLE 2 POSIXa 1003.13 profiles 0 100 300 Actual tick time Desired tick time 200 Timer resolution 400 Timer period Time (ms) Timer jitter Figure 3: Timer jitter benchmark. level of compliance to POSIX 1003.1a and the 3.1 release is compliant with all three stan- dards.VxWorksonlysupportsa subset of the POSIX standards because in releases prior to and including v. 5.4, VxWorks was based on a single process model that does not include task memory protection. The cur- rent release, VxWorks AE, does support memory protection; however,theprotectionscheme isimplementeddifferentlythan inthetraditionalPOSIXprocess model. Linux provides good support for the base POSIX APIsandthreads,butismissing featuressuchastimersandmes- sage queues. OS design The design of an OS can have a significant impact on its ability tobeused ina real-time system. This includes the internal de- sign of the OS as well as the fea- tures it provides to the applica- tion programmer. This section focuses on the design of two OSs (Solaris and LynxOS), and theirsuitabilityforuseinareal- time system. Desired features of a real-time OS: Real-time systems are typi- cally implemented with mul- tiple asynchronous threads of execution. This is dictated by the need to react to external events, and control asynchro- nous devices. Because of this characteristic, an RTOS must support multithreading. Also, because the criticality and rates of events are different, the RTOS must support a notion of priority so that a time-critical task is not delayed because of a non-criticaltask.Furthermore, tasks need to communicate. Therefore,theOSmustprovide synchronization and communi- cation facilities. An RTOS also needs to sup- port timing features like high- resolution timers and clocks. Timers are used to support pe- riodic processing and to detect system timeout errors. Clocks are needed to keep track of time. Typical real-time applica- S W Task 1 Latency of system call Test 1 Task 1 Round-trip signaling latency Test 2 Test 3 S W Task 2 Low task Low priority task delayed by medium priority task Delay time High priority task delayed until low priority task releases resource Medium task High task P1 P2 A A R W S Figure 4: Synchronization tests OS POSIX 1003.1a POSIX 1003.1b POSIX 1003.1c (Base POSIX) (Real-time extensions) (Threads) Solaris Full support Full support Full support LynxOS Conformant Full support 3.0.1 based on draft and missing thread attributes; 3.1 based on final standard VxWorks Partial support; Partial support; support Support through a third support for functions for functions that do not party product that do not require a require a process model process model IRIX Conformant Full support Full support Linux Full support Partial support; no Full support support for timers or message queues QNX Neutrino Full support Close to full support; Full support no for memory locking TABLE 3 POSIX in commercial operating systemsTABLE 3 POSIX in commercial operating systems Figure 5: Timer jitter results 1 10 100 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Timer period (ms) Jitter(5s) 1 10010 100,000,000 10,000,000 1,000,000 100,000 10,000 1,000 100 10 1 Timer period (ms) Jitter(5s) lynx s8 (2 proc) s8 (1 rt) s8 (1 proc) A No load B Heavy load tions may need to be aware of time at a granularity of micro- or milliseconds. With respect to perfor- mance, the OS must be predict- ableandaddminimaloverhead. As discussed previously, a real- time system must behave deter- ministically. This implies that the time required by all opera- tions, including OS functions, must be deterministic. To be deterministic an OS must be preemptable,whichmeansthat iftheOSis processing a request on behalf of a low priority task, it must be able to stop what it is doing and turn its attention to a higher priority task. This pre- vents a situation where a high priority task is forever delayed by the OS. Solaris: Solaris is a general pur- pose UNIX OS developed to run on SPARC and Pentium- class CPUs. Solaris has many of the features required for a real- time system. These features are: 7 A multithreaded preemp- table kernel 7 Global priority model: threads are mapped to light- weight processes, which are allocated to priority classes and then scheduled globally. 7 Configurable clock tick: the frequency of the clock tick can be changed, thereby in- creasing or decreasing the frequency with which the scheduler runs. 7 High resolution POSIX tim- ers: Solaris defines an addi- tional POSIX timer (CLOCK_HIGHRES) that, based on the capability of the hardware, can provide timers with nanosecond and milli- second resolution. 7 Priority I/O streams 7 Additional support for POSIX real-time APIs: Solaris 8 now supports all of POSIX 1003.1b. 7 Symmetrical multiprocess- ing support: Solaris sup- ports multiprocessing that is transparent to the user. This also allows processors to be reserved for real-time processing, increasing the determinism. Solaris thread implementa- tion. Solaris implements both user-level and kernel-level threads. User-level threads are implemented as a library at the user application level, whereas kernel-level threads are the unit of execution seen by the kernel. Solaris uses the Light- weight Processes (LWP) mechanism to run kernel-level threads on processors. The mapping of user-level threads to LWPs can be done in a num- berofdifferentways.Ifmultiple user-level threads are mapped to a single kernel-level thread, at most one of them can be ac- tiveatatime.Totakeadvantage of multiple processors, user- level threads can be mapped one-to-one to LWPs. Figure 1 illustrates how Solaris processor sets and pro- cessor binding can be used to dedicate processors for real- timetasks.Thepsrsetcommand is first used to create a pool of one or more processors. Note that all but one processor is eli- gibleforinclusionintheproces- sor set; one processor is needed ClassClass PriorityPriority rangerange DescriptionDescription ISRs N/A Asynchronous interrupt service routines; not scheduled Interrupt threads 160-169 Interrupt processing not done in the ISR; scheduled based on priority of ISR Real-time 100-159 Time-critical tasks; fixed priority preemptive scheduling System/kernel 60-99 System level functions Time sharing/ 0-59 General-purpose applications; OS may dynamically Interactive adjust priorities to achieve fairness TABLE 4 Solaris priority classesTABLE 4 Solaris priority classes No load Heavy load 1,000,000 100,000 10,000 1,000 100 10 1 Maximuminterval(5s) lynx s8 (2 proc) s8 (1 rt) s8 (1 proc) Figure 6: Bintime results Timer jitter Create a periodic Measures the response Timer period: (1, 10, thread and measure time of the OS 100ms) the deviation between desired and actual expiration Response Execute a fixed pro- Determine if a thread Type of processing: (add, cessing load and can respond in a copy, whetstone) measure its execution deterministic fashion time over a number of runs Bintime Call a time of day Measures the max- None clock and measure imum kernel blocking interval between calls time Sync Measure the latency Measures the context Type of semaphore: of thread to thread or switching time (POSIX name/unnamed process to process between threads semaphore, pthread synchronization and processes mutex, lynx semaphore); process to process or thread to thread Message passing Measure the latency Measures the possible Data buffer size; process of sending data from throughput of data to process or thread to thread to thread or between processes thread process to process and threads RT signals Measure the latency Measures the latency None of real-time signals of POSIX real-time between two processes signals TABLE 5 Real-time benchmarksTABLE 5 Real-time benchmarks Benchmark Description Aspect tested Parameters toprocesslightweightprocesses outside the set. The psradm command can then be used to disable unbound interrupts on the processors in the processor set.Thepsrsetcommandisthen used to run real-time processes on the processors in the bound processor set. All other non- real-time processes and inter- rupts run on processors outside the real-time processor set. As will be addressed later, this mechanismhasadramaticeffect on the timeliness of real-time processing. The Solaris scheduler. To support different types of scheduling policies, Solaris runs each lightweight process in one of four priority classes. These classes are shown in Table 4. Interrupt service rou- tines are not part of the sched- uling process, but they are in- cluded in Table 4 because they run at a higher priority than all tasks, and thus can interfere with normal LWP processing. Application LWPs run in one of threeclasses:real-time,system, or timesharing. Interrupt threads are reserved for inter- rupt processing not done in the interrupt service routine. Scheduling consists of two processes:decidingwhichLWP to run and performing tick pro- cessing. When the scheduler is invoked it dispatches the LWP withthehighestglobalpriority. If the machine has multiple CPUs, the scheduler can dis- patch multiple LWPs. The second aspect of sched- uling is tick processing, the processing that takes place at every clock tick. The scheduler will scan all the active LWPs and update their state. For timesharingthreads,thesched- ulermayincreasethepriorityof a LWP if it determines that thread is not receiving a fair share of the CPU. Solaris may also promote a LWP to the sys- tem class if the LWP is holding a system resource. Because real-time threads run with a fixed priority scheduling policy, very little tick process- ing is done for them. Lynx OS: LynxOS is a UNIX- styleOSdevelopedforreal-time embedded systems. The Lynx kernel is preemptable, reen- trant,andcanbescaleddownto a footprint as low as 97KB. Lynx scheduling. LynxOS supports a single scheduling policy, fixed priority preemp- tive with 256 priority levels. The clock tick frequency is fixed at 100Hz, which limits the resolution of timers to 10 milliseconds. The scheduler is also invoked in response to asynchronous events and change in the system state. Lynx priority tracking. LynxOS uses a mechanism called priority tracking to handle interrupt processing not done in the interrupt ser- vice routine. This is in contrast to the interrupt thread class used by Solaris. The problem with using an interrupt thread class is that interrupt process- ing on behalf of low priority tasks will run at higher priority than application processing of a high priority task. This cre- ates a priority inversion. The way LynxOS solves this prob- lem is to tie the priority of the interrupt processing to the pri- ority of the application thread. The 256 task priorities are sub- divided into 512 priorities and application threads use the 256 even priorities and interrupt threads use the 256 odd priori- ties. This idea is illustrated in Figure 2, where interrupt threads run a half-step above their corresponding applica- tion thread. Interrupt threads are writ- ten as part of the device driver for a particular device, and therefore are not associated with a particular application lynx (No load) lynx (Heavy load) s8 (No load) s8 (Heavy load) lynx (No load) lynx (Heavy load) s8 (No load) s8 (Heavy load) 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Latency(5s) 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 0 1 Latency(5s) Memory sem Named sem pmutexes lynx sem A Worst case B Average Figure 7: Sync Test 1: Lynx and Solaris (1 rt) PlatformPlatform HardwareHardware CPUCPU (speed)(speed) OperatingOperating systemsystem CPUCPU config.config. Lynx Dell Pentium 2 (266MHz) Lynx OS 3.0.1 1 CPU Solaris (2 proc) Sun Ultra 60 SPARC (360MHz) Solaris 8 2 CPUs Solaris (1 proc) Sun Ultra 60 SPARC (360MHz) Solaris 8 1 CPU Solaris (1 rt) Sun Ultra 60 SPARC (360MHz) Solaris 8 2 CPUs, 1 CPU reserved to run RTbenchmarks TABLE 6 Experimental platforms N a m e D e s c r i p t i o n L o a d d e g r e e CPU Processing load generated with the 10ms every 100ms Whetstone synthetic benchmark Disk File write operations 10ms every 100ms Interrupt External serial interrupt 1,000 interrupts/sec Network TCP/IP socket transfers 4,000 packets/sec System call Sequence of utility system calls 10ms every 100ms Memory Dynamic memory allocation 10ms every 100ms File search Search files in a directory and all sub-directories Continuous TABLE 7 Non real-time (heavy) loadABLE 7 Non real-time (heavy) load thread.Becauseofthis,LynxOS providesa mechanismbywhich thedevicedrivercandetermine the priority of the thread on behalf of which it is currently running.Usingthisfeature,the interrupt thread can adjust its priority to the appropriate level. If in the future a different application thread needs the same device, the interrupt thread is notified and can change its priority. Testing the real-time performance of OSs The benchmarks used in this study are divided into two cat- egories: those that measure the determinism of the OS and those that measure the latency of particular important opera- tions. These benchmarks are motivated by the real-time per- formance requirements dis- cussed previously. The bench- marks test core OS capabilities and are independent of any ac- tual application. Also because we are interested in determin- ing the best possible real-time performance, all real-time threadsarerunatthemaximum possible real-time priority, and the virtual memory used by the benchmarks is locked into physical memory. Table 5 sum- marizes the six benchmarks used in this study. Deterministic benchmarks: The first three benchmarks shown in Table 5, (timer jitter, re- sponse, and bintime) are de- signed to measure the deter- minism of an OS. Because de- terminism implies that the time it takes to perform an op- eration is known under all cir- cumstances, we typically re- port the worst case time for these benchmarks. The structure of the timer jitter test is shown in Figure 3. The test creates a timer, sets it toexpireatagivenperiod,then determines the actual expira- tion time. The jitter is then de- fined as the deviation between the actual and desired expira- tion times. Most current CPUs include a stamp counter that is updated on every CPU cycle. ThePOSIXclock_gettimefunc- tion in most OSs uses this stamp counter, giving a high- precision time of day clock. The second deterministic benchmark (response) mea- sures the actual execution time of a 10-millisecond fixed block of processing. The actual ex- ecution time over a number of separate runs is calculated to determine whether or not ap- plication response time is de- terministic. The fixed process- ing is generated with a loop consistingofoneofthreediffer- ent types of operations: addi- tions (add), memory copies (copy), or the synthetic Whet- stone benchmark (whet). The last deterministic benchmark (bintime) deter- mines the maximum kernel blocking time. The benchmark uses a high priority real-time thread to repeatedly call a time of day clock and calculate the time required by each call. The time required by each call con- sists of the time to perform the system call and any time spent blocked in the kernel.Sincethe time to perform the system call should be constant, the devia- tion between the maximum time reported by the bench- mark and the average time gives a good indication of the maximum time spent blocked in the kernel. Latency benchmarks: The final three benchmarks test the syn- chronization, message passing, and RT signaling capabilities of an OS. For a real-time system it is important to minimize syn- chronization and communica- tion latency. So the average la- tency of operations should be smalltominimizethetotalover- head. Bounding the maximum 80 0 Latency(5s) 60 50 40 30 20 10 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Latency(5s) A Worst case B Average lynx (No load) lynx (Heavy load) s8 (No load) s8 (Heavy load) lynx (No load) lynx (Heavy load) s8 (No load) s8 (Heavy load) Memory sem Named sem lynx sem Figure 8: Sync Test 2: Lynx and Solaris (1 rt) L y n x 9 . 9 9.9 10.0 10.1 10.1 10.2 Solaris (2 procs) 10.1 11236.5 10.7 12061.7 10.6 12162.8 Solaris (1 proc) 10.2 7310.7 10.2 4599.3 10.7 6328.2 Solaris (1 rt) 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.5 10.5 TABLE 8 Worst case response results (in ms)orst case response results (in ms) Configuration add copy whet No load Heavy load No load Heavy load No load Heavy load Lynx 42.2 20.1 47.2 24.2 40.5 20.1 53.2 24.0 Solaris (1 rt) 65.4 52.9 446.8 49.9 67.2 51.8 461.0 50.6 Solaris (1 proc) 198.9 53.0 459.1 50.3 160.8 53.2 23240 51.4 Solaris (2 proc) 247.5 48.1 119.6 41.4 7149.0 68.7 639191 82.2 TABLE 9 Context switching times Process Max Avg Process Max AvgConfiguration No load Heavy load Thread Max Avg Thread Max Avg latency is important as well--to achieve determinism. Four different synchroniza- tion tests are shown in Figure 4. In the first test, a single thread signals(S)andthenwaits(W)on asemaphore.Thistestmeasures thelatencyofsemaphoresystem calls.Thesecondtestusessema- phores to signal between two threads. The threads are either in a single process or two differ- ent processes. Measurements from the first two tests can be used to determine the context switching time by subtracting the system call overhead, ob- tained in test one, from half of the roundtrip signaling time, obtained in test two. The last test assesses an OSs' ability to deal with priority in- version. The test sets up a clas- sic priority inversion using semaphores. (Note: for clarity thesemaphoresarenotshownin the picture.) The priority inver- sion occurs when a low priority task acquires (A) a resource needed later by a high priority task. The high priority task blocks waiting on the resource and is delayed indefinitely be- cause an independent medium priority task is monopolizing theCPU.Thisisapriorityinver- sion because now the medium priority task is favored over the high priority task. A typical way of solving this problem is to al- low the low priority task to in- heritthepriorityofthehighpri- ority task so that it can run and release the resource (R). In the test,afixed-durationprocessing loop is used for the medium pri- oritytask.Ifapriorityinversion occurs, the time between when the low priority task acquires the resource and when the high prioritytaskreceivesitwillbeat least the time in this fixed-dura- tionofprocessing.IftheOSsyn- chronization mechanism pre- vents a priority inversion, this time will be negligible. The message passing bench- mark uses POSIX message queues to measure the latency and throughput of data trans- fers between two threads in the same process or in different processes. The last benchmark measures the latency of POSIX real-time signals. Benchmark results The benchmarks defined in the previous section were run on twodifferentOSs:LynxOS3.0.1 and Solaris 8. The details of the two systems are shown in Table 6. Note that the CPU, among other hardware characteristics, differs between the two plat- forms.Becauseourbenchmarks were written to test the deter- minism of the OSs, and we ob- serve the worst case time, this difference has little impact on the results. However, the speed differenceshouldbeconsidered when comparing the results of average timings. Table 6 identifies three dif- ferent Solaris configurations. These different configurations allow us to investigate the im- pact of using multiple CPUs. Thefirstconfigurationusesthe twoprocessorUltra60asis.For the second configuration, one of the CPUs is disabled. In the last configuration, one of the CPUs is reserved and the real- time benchmarks are run on it. Also for this configuration the reserved processor is sheltered from all unbound interrupts. Non real-time external load: The benchmarks were run stand-alone,thatis,withoutany other user processes running, thenincombinationwithanon- real-time load. Typically a real- time system will run a mixture of applications, some with real- time requirements and some without. A graphical user inter- face is an example of a non-real- time application. Table 7 shows the types of processing used to generate the non-real-time load. The load contains CPU- intensiveapplicationsaswellas applications that use interrupt- ing I/O devices such as the file and network subsystems. Timer jitter: Figure 5 shows the results of the timer jitter tests for all four platforms. Without a load, shown in Figure 5a, all platformshaveacceptablejitter under 200ms. The Solaris (1 rt) configuration has the least amount of jitter. The jitter for the Lynx configuration is also quite low. Under a heavy load, showninFigure5b,thejitterfor the Solaris configurations that do not reserve a real-processor is out of bounds. The worst case jitter, for these configurations, is as great as 10 seconds. Application response: Table 8 shows the worst case response results for all configurations. Without a load, all configura- tionshavearesponseresultvery close to the calibrated value of 10 milliseconds. With a load only the Lynx and Solaris (1 rt) configurationcomeclosetothe 10-millisecondvalue.Theworst case results for the standard Solarisplatform(Solaris2proc) is three orders of magnitude worsethanthecalibratedvalue. Bintime: Figure 6 shows the re- sults for the deterministic bintime benchmark for all con- figurations. Without a load the kernel imposes very little delay. For the Solaris (1 rt) configura- tion, the delay is below 10 milli- seconds, and for all other con- figurationsthedelayisatorless than 100 milliseconds. Under a heavy load, the Solaris configu- rations without a reserved real- time processor again are very non-deterministic. The maxi- mum delay for the single CPU Solaris configuration is close to one second. Synchronization:Inthissection wepresenttheresultsofthesyn- chronization tests described previously. Test 1 (Signaling within a thread). Figure 7 shows the re- sults of the simple synchroniza- Lynx 50.1 30.5 57.7 35.9 46.2 51.6 45.9 50.0 Solaris (1 rt) 98.7 90.5 118.9 102.7 62.4 77.8 61.5 76.5 Solaris (1 proc) 152.8 89.6 159.0 102.4 77.7 77.3 72.9 76.3 Solaris (2 proc) 148.7 82.8 146.8 77.5 41.3 66.6 58.2 65.5 ConfigurationConfiguration Latency (Latency (55s)s) T hroughout (MBps)Throughout (MBps) ProcessProcess Worst AvgWorst Avg ThreadThread Worst AvgWorst Avg ProcessProcess Worst AvgWorst Avg ThreadThread Worst AvgWorst Avg TABLE 10 POSIX message queues (no load)TABLE 10 POSIX message queues (no load) No load Heavy load 10,000,000 1,000,000 100,000 10,000 1,000 100 10 1 Latency(5s) Lynx lynx (lsem) s8 (1 rt) s8 (1 proc) s8 (2 proc) Figure 9: Sync Test 3: Lynx and Solaris (1 rt) tion test for the Lynx and Solaris (1 rt) configurations. Four different types of synchro- nization mechanisms were tested for Lynx, and three for Solaris.AsFigure7ashows,the worst case latency for the Solaris platform is much better than the latency for the Lynx platform. For both platforms the addition of a load has little affectontheworstcasetimings. Figure 7b shows the average latencies for the same synchro- nization mechanisms. For Lynx, the lynx semaphores ex- hibit the highest latency, most likely because priority inherit- ance is implemented for this semaphore. For Solaris the la- tency of the POSIX-named semaphoreismuchhigherthan the latency of the other mecha- nisms. An explanation for this is that the semaphore name is kept in the file system. Test 2 (Inter-thread signal- ing). Figure 8 shows the results of the inter-thread signaling test for the Lynx and the Solaris (1 rt) configurations. In all cases the average and worst case round-trip time is better for Lynx than Solaris. This re- sult is especially significant be- cause the Solaris test was run on a faster processor than the Lynx test. Figure 8 also shows that the latency of all types of synchronizationmechanisms is roughly equal. Test 3 (Priority inversion). The results for the priority in- versiontestareshowninFigure 9, for all configurations. For all cases, except the Lynx (lsem) case, a pthread mutex is used to guard the resource shared by the low and high priority tasks. Without a load, the first Lynx configurationexhibitsalatency correspondingtothedelaytime of the medium priority task of 10 milliseconds. This is due to the fact that in LynxOS 3.0.1, priority inheritance is not implemented for pthread mutexes. This problem is not seen with Lynx semaphores. Priority inheritance is imple- mented in Solaris, and the la- tency for all Solaris configura- tions, without a load, is low. Under a heavy load, only the Lynx (lsem) and Solaris (1 rt) configurations exhibit an ac- ceptable latency. The Solaris 1rt and 2 proc configurations are affected by the heavy load, andtheLynxconfigurationstill has a high latency, because of the lack of a priority inherit- ance protocol. Context switching time. Table 9 shows context switch timeforallplatformscomputed from the results for memory semaphores in the first two syn- chronization tests. The context switch time for Lynx isless than halfthevalueofthebestSolaris configuration. Also for Lynx, the process-to-process context switching time is only slightly worse than the thread-to- thread context switching time. The context switching time for Solaris threads is more de- terministic than the context switching time for processes. For the Solaris (1 rt) configu- ration, the maximum thread- to-thread context switching time is close to average. How- ever, for the same configura- tion, the process-to-process context switching time is an order of magnitude worse than the average value. Another in- teresting observation is that for Solaris the context switch- ing time between processes is slightly better than between threads. In both cases there is a context switch between LWPs, which seems to imply that the bulk of the overhead is in the scheduler. Communication:Real-time sig- nals. Figure 10 shows the re- sults of the real-time signal benchmark for all configura- tions. The Lynx configuration has a lower signal latency than any of the Solaris configura- tions. Also the Solaris 1 proc and 2 proc configurations are severely affected by the addi- tion of a non-real-time load. Message queues. The la- tency and throughput of POSIX message queues for all configu- rations is shown in Table 10. The latency for the Lynx plat- form is better than the Solaris platform, but the Solaris plat- form has better throughput. This better throughput is most Figure 10: Real-time signal latency No load (max) Heavy load (max) Heavy load (avg) No load (avg) 100,000 10,000 1,000 100 10 1 Latency(5s) Lynx s8 (2 proc) s8 (1 rt) s8 (1 proc) likely due to faster hardware on the Solaris platform. Suitability In this article we have assessed theuseofPOSIXinthedevelop- ment of software for real-time and embedded systems. We dis- cussed the features of POSIX and how well these features match those required for real- timesoftwaredevelopment.We also empirically evaluated the real-time performance charac- teristics of two implementa- tions of POSIX: LynxOS 3.0.1 and Solaris 8. The empirical evaluation showed that both LynxOS and Solaris are suitable for use in real-time systems. LynxOS ex- hibited a low overhead for all operations and was determinis- tic even under heavy loading conditions. Solaris 8 contains a number offeaturesthatareimportantin real-time development, includ- inghigh-resolutiontimers,pro- cessor partitioning, and SMP support.Theselasttwofeatures are key in Solaris's use as a real-time OS. A dramatic dif- ference is apparent between the determinism of the stan- dard Solaris configuration and one in which all real-time tasks are run on a dedicated proces- sor. The standard configura- tion is unsuitable for real-time, whereas the second configura- tion is very deterministic. Although this study did not perform an exhaustive com- parison of the POSIX APIs be- tween Solaris and LynxOS, our conclusion is that the two implementations of POSIX have a great deal in common. The biggest differences are in the areas of clock resolution and number of real-time priori- ties. Clock resolution could pose a portability problem if a resolution of greater than 10 milliseconds is needed. Other differences that we encoun- tered, like discrepancies in the LynxOS threads implementa- tion, have been rectified in v. 3.1 of the OS. [Embedded Systems Programming] Kevin Obenland Faculty Member George Mason University

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