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Implement Java-programmable, secure MCU for IoT

Posted: 27 May 2014     Print Version  Bookmark and Share

Keywords:Internet of Things  embedded systems  connectivity  microcontrollers  JavaCard 

The Internet of Things is fuelling the need for connectivity in embedded systems. Once connected, ordinary devices become smart objects that can interact with the world over the Internet. This requirement is being pushed down even to the simplest, most resource-constrained devices. Connectivity in turn is driving a need for security, because connected and typically unattended devices can be more easily hijacked and converted into launch pads for malicious attacks.

As requirements and complexity grow, it makes more sense to use an operating system on the microcontroller, which is an effective way to reduce development costs and time to market. Java Embedded as well as a whole ecosystem of Embedded Linux options are available to do this for the higher-end microcontrollers. The lower-end, resource-constrained microcontrollers are generally considered too constrained to run an operating system. But is this actually true?

For many years, JavaCard, a subset of Embedded Java, has been running on low-cost, secure microcontrollers used in identity and payment applications such as SIM and chip-cards. The use of JavaCard on these low-end controllers enabled effective abstraction of the complicated cryptography required for identity and payment applications. Developers could write Java applet applications using a high-level programming language, make their applications portable across different hardware, re-use their code, and generally save a lot of development time and money.

In order to run Internet connected devices – Smart Objects—JavaCard needs to be enhanced to support IP connectivity, real-time programming, and post-deployment code updates (executable content management). The resulting Java machine needs to be optimised to efficiently run on low-cost (<$2.00), resource-constrained microcontrollers, and provide acceptable performance (on par with native code).

Based on JavaCard, jNet's Javelin OS is a Java-programmable, IP-addressable, real-time enabled, and secure microcontroller OS designed for low-cost, resource-constrained microcontrollers that go into the Smart Objects that make up the Internet of Things. With a memory footprint of ~320KB, Javelin OS can run on 16- or 32bit microcontrollers, providing them with out of the box support for a micro-IP stack, advanced cryptography, and remote code updates.

Java-programmable means the OS supports the execution of Java applet applications. The low-level chip architecture and complexities are abstracted away by the Java VM, which means developers don't need to deal with the bits and bytes of low-level controller programming. With the hardware and low-level programming complexities abstracted away, developers can focus their work on the higher-level functionality that makes products extraordinary and also results in valuable gains in time-to-market and development costs.

With Java, standard and widely available development tools (Eclipse IDE) allow developers to get started quickly. High-level APIs can be learned in days and a proof-of-concept applet developed in a matter of hours. Once written, the applet can be loaded from Eclipse over the Internet and into a remote device for testing. Testing and debugging complex, low-level C and assembly code goes away. Java is also portable, which means application code can be re-used and will run on multiple platforms.

IP-addressable means the microcontroller can communicate with the Internet using standard protocols. IP-addressability is supported by the Javelin OS and its built-in micro-IP stack. Developers can work with standard Java classes (via a subset of java.net) for network connectivity, which means they do not need to implement standard communications protocols. This ensures out-of-the-box, cost effective, and error-proof connectivity for the smart object.

Beyond basic connectivity, the Javelin OS also supports mechanisms for secure post-deployment updates for the controller logic—the applet(s)—to correct bugs and upgrade capabilities. With post-deployment updates available, developers can deploy systems more quickly, manage the product lifecycle more effectively, and enjoy overall lower TCO for the Smart Object.

Real-time enabled means that the OS supports the soft real-time programming often required for effective handling of sensors and actuators. jNet's Javelin OS augments the Java virtual machine, which inherently does not support time-sensitive tasks, with an integrated RTOS to enable time-sensitive control of sensors and actuators on the smart object. With roughly 70% of embedded projects requiring real-time capabilities (according to a recent UBM survey), augmenting the simplicity of Java programming with real-time capabilities offers developers a unique advantage.

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