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IC industry addresses 'software gap'

Posted: 07 Apr 2008     Print Version  Bookmark and Share

Keywords:embedded system 

The semiconductor industry is starting to address what's being called a software gap between a rising tide of multicore processors and a lack of parallel programming tools and techniques to make use of them.

The gap came into stark focus in the embedded world at the Multicore Expo, where chipmakers Freescale Semiconductor, Intel Corp., MIPS and a handful of silicon startups sketched out directions for their multicore products. Others warned that the industry has its work cut out for it delivering the software that will harness the next-generation chips.

Not yet ready
"There is a major gap between the hardware and the software," said Eric Heikkila, director of embedded hardware research at Venture Development Corp. (VDC).

About 55 percent of embedded system developers surveyed by VDC said they are using or will use multicore processors in the next 12 months. That fact is fueling the company's projections that the market for embedded multicore processors will grow from about Rs.1,468.60 crore ($372 million) in 2007 to Rs.9,751.16 crore ($2.47 billion) in 2011.

In the PC market, the figures are even more dramatic. About 40 percent of all processors Intel shipped in 2007 used multiple cores, but that will rise to 95 percent in 2011, said Doug Davis, general manager of Intel's embedded group.

But on the software side, vendors reported that only about 6 percent of their tools were ready for parallel chips in 2007, a figure that will only rise to 40 percent in 2011, VDC said. As much as 85 percent of all embedded programming is now done in C or C++, languages that are "difficult to optimize for multicore," said Heikkila.

"There's a need for a short-term fix to make C/C++ more expressive, as well as a long-term solution with new languages and tools," he said.

Changing techniques could be as hard as developing new tools, according to Alan Gatherer, chief technology officer of the communications infrastructure group at Texas Instruments. "We are dealing with legacy methodologies as much as legacy code," he said.

"If you go to companies such as Ericsson, they have hundreds of programmers writing code in very disciplined ways. So a lot of new software ideas are going to have to prove themselves, because you can't turn an oil tanker on a dime," said Gatherer.

Michael McCool, chief scientist of startup RapidMind, called for a new programming model to help developers better understand how to optimize their applications for parallel chips. Such a model would need to automate as much as possible while giving users override options and drill-down mechanisms, McCool said.

"Complexity [in multicore programming] explodes beyond a certain point, and that point is fairly low," he said.

Exploring new techniquesThe fundamental issues behind creating a mainstream parallel programming model are just starting to come to light. "I think we are beginning to see where the heads of the monsters are," said Wen-mei Hwu, a veteran researcher in parallel programming and professor of engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

The university recently won a Rs.39.48 crore ($10 million) grant from Intel and Microsoft to explore new parallel programming techniques. "There is really only room for one model of parallel programming. No one can afford to write applications in multiple models," said Hwu.

As co-chair of the university's new parallel research center, Hwu said he wants to build programming frameworks to limit variables such as dependencies in parallel software that create thorny problems for compilers. "We believe the frameworks should also serve as a source of information available to the compilers and underlying hardware," he said.

The university will partner with another enter funded by Microsoft and Intel at the University of California at Berkeley. "It's not a competitive situation," said Hwu.

Separately, Illinois researchers are seeking Rs.39.48 crore ($10 million) to create a next-generation parallel processor. Called Rigel, the chip aims to anticipate future many-core processors by extrapolating directions in today's general-purpose multicore computer and graphics chips.

Sanjay Patel, who designed the physics processor from startup Ageia Technologies (recently acquired by Nvidia) will lead the chip design. Hwu will lead work on applications for the chip in areas such as video surveillance. The team has set an ambitious goal of defining a range of chips from a 1-watt Teraflops processor to a 100-W 10-Tflops CPU.

Setting standards
In terms of standards, the Multicore Association announced at the Expo it has completed work on an applications programming interface for communications between cores, and is now working to define a standard for embedded virtualisation.

Observers praised the efforts and pointed to related work-in-progress at groups such as the Mobile Industry Processor Interface, OpenMP, Posix and Power.org.

"Multicore is forcing companies to open up and drive new business models. There is a requirement for more standardisation than ever before," said Heikkila of VDC.

However, experts are still advising caution in the area of designing new languages or making major extensions to existing ones to better serve parallel chips.

"The ultimate goal of every computer scientist is to create a new language, but my personal view is we should not do it this time around," said Hwu, referring to a flowering of languages developed for big parallel computers two decades ago, many of which never gained traction.

"I believe there will be new language constructs in C/C++ to support some of the new frameworks people will develop, but even these constructs, if we are not careful, will not be widely adopted," Hwu said. "Ultimately, I think we will make a small amount of extensions to C, but I think it's too early.

"If you really want to have a million people do something, don't ask them to speak Latin. It is enough to ask them to just speak English without using cuss words," he quipped, explaining the need for an evolutionary approach.

New tools
Following that route, researchers from IMEC described a handful of new tools based on what it called CleanC. Diederik Verkest, a group science director for the research institute, described it as a C variant that follows 28 "common sense" rules to smooth the path to parallelism.

"Following these practices is a good thing to do if you want to have the best chance of analyzing your code," said Verkest.

One of the new IMEC tools aims to hide the complexity of new memory hierarchies and interconnect fabrics increasingly used in multicore chips. Another tool quickly shows scaling benefits of a program without requiring the program to be debugged.

"We believe compiler-like tools in the hands of smart programmers is the best way to get to parallel code," said Verkest.

Hardware moves on the hardware front, MIPS Technologies came to the expo with details of its first multiprocessing-ready core. The 1004K aims to leapfrog existing products from its archrival ARM Ltd.

On-chip fabric
For their part, Freescale and Intel sketched out design trends they see on the horizon for their multicore chips.

Freescale is now sampling the first dual-core versions of its PowerQuicc processors, aimed at telecom OEMs. The chips are part of a family that will eventually scale to 32-core devices, said Dan Cronin, VP of R&D for Freescale's networking division.

The processors will use a new on-chip interconnect fabric. They will also embed in hardware a hypervisor, a kind of low-level scheduling unit, co-developed with IBM according to specs set in the Power.org group. Freescale will release an open source reference design for companies that want to build virtualisation software that taps into the hypervisor, Cronin said.

"Several other processor companies are doing similar things" with embedded hypervisors, raising the issue of non-standard approaches to virtualisation, said Marcus Levy, president of the Multicore Association and host of the expo.

Intel described several extensions it sees on the horizon for its multicore chips, including new on-chip fabrics, scratchpad memories and use of spare cores and schedulers. "Beyond adding to the sheer number of cores, there are several system-level challenges that need to be overcome to tap into the true power of multicore processors," said Pranav Mehta, chief technologist of Intel's embedded group.

Asked how many engineers Intel has working on multicore programming issues, Mehta said, "If I had to guess, I would say it is at least in four digits, but even Intel doesn't think we can solve all the problems here alone."

A handful of chip startups, including Ambric and Intellasys, came to the expo touting novel multicore architectures and proprietary tools to write software for them. One of the newer companies among them, Plurality Ltd. (Netanya, Israel), said it will release a 256-core product early next year and simulation models and tools for using it in the next few months.

- Rick Merritt
EE Times





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