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TMS320C6x thermal design considerations

Posted: 10 May 2001     Print Version  Bookmark and Share

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TMS320C6x Thermal Design Considerations APPLICATION REPORT: SPRA432 David Bell Digital Signal Processing Solutions April 1998 IMPORTANT NOTICE Texas Instruments (TI) reserves the right to make changes to its products or to discontinue any semiconductor product or service without notice, and advises its customers to obtain the latest version of relevant information to verify, before placing orders, that the information being relied on is current. TI warrants performance of its semiconductor products and related software to the specifications applicable at the time of sale in accordance with TI's standard warranty. Testing and other quality control techniques are utilized to the extent TI deems necessary to support this warranty. Specific testing of all parameters of each device is not necessarily performed, except those mandated by government requirements. Certain application using semiconductor products may involve potential risks of death, personal injury, or severe property or environmental damage ("Critical Applications"). TI SEMICONDUCTOR PRODUCTS ARE NOT DESIGNED, INTENDED, AUTHORIZED, OR WARRANTED TO BE SUITABLE FOR USE IN LIFE-SUPPORT APPLICATIONS, DEVICES OR SYSTEMS OR OTHER CRITICAL APPLICATIONS. Inclusion of TI products in such applications is understood to be fully at the risk of the customer. Use of TI products in such applications requires the written approval of an appropriate TI officer. Questions concerning potential risk applications should be directed to TI through a local SC sales office. In order to minimize risks associated with the customer's applications, adequate design and operating safeguards should be provided by the customer to minimize inherent or procedural hazards. TI assumes no liability for applications assistance, customer product design, software performance, or infringement of patents or services described herein. Nor does TI warrant or represent that any license, either express or implied, is granted under any patent right, copyright, mask work right, or other intellectual property right of TI covering or relating to any combination, machine, or process in which such semiconductor products or services might be or are used. Copyright ) 1998, Texas Instruments Incorporated TRADEMARKS TI is a trademark of Texas Instruments Incorporated. Other brands and names are the property of their respective owners. CONTACT INFORMATION US TMS320 HOTLINE (281) 274-2320 US TMS320 FAX (281) 274-2324 US TMS320 BBS (281) 274-2323 US TMS320 email dsph@ti.com Contents Abstract .........................................................................................................................9 Product Support............................................................................................................9 Related Documentation.............................................................................................9 World Wide Web .......................................................................................................9 Email.........................................................................................................................9 Design Problem ............................................................................................................9 Solution .........................................................................................................................9 Thermal Considerations ..........................................................................................11 Thermal Analysis and Heat Sink Selection..............................................................11 Example 1:......................................................................................................12 Example 2:......................................................................................................13 Figures Figure 1. Thermal Model Used for Heat Flow Analysis...................................................11 Figure 2. Heat Sink Performance Plot............................................................................13 Figure 3. Heat Sink Performance Plot............................................................................14 TMS320C6x Thermal Design Considerations 7 TMS320C6x Thermal Design Considerations Abstract This document discusses thermal analysis and heat sink selection for the Texas Instuments (TITM) TMS320C6x digital signal processor (DSP). A simplified approach us offered to select a heat sink that matches a particular operating environment. Examples are included to demonstrate the method for selecting a heat sink for a typical design. SPRA432 8 TMS320C6x Thermal Design Considerations Product Support Related Documentation The following list specifies product names, part numbers, and literature numbers of corresponding TI documentation. G Document title, Literature number SXXX0000 G Document title, Literature number SXXX0000 World Wide Web Our World Wide Web site at www.ti.com contains the most up to date product information, revisions, and additions. Users registering with TI&ME can build custom information pages and receive new product updates automatically via email. Email For technical issues or clarification on switching products, please send a detailed email to dsph@ti.com. Questions receive prompt attention and are usually answered within one business day. SPRA432 TMS320C6x Thermal Design Considerations 9 Design Problem Thermal analysis and heat sink selection for the TMS320C6x. Solution Like most high-performance processors, the `C6x dissipates some thermal energy during normal operation. The high level of integration, high clock frequency, and large on-chip memory arrays have an increased effect on the silicon junction temperature (Tj) compared with a lower performance DSP. To ensure proper operation and device reliability, the silicon junction temperature must not exceed maximum junction temperature (related to maximum case temperature Tcmax). Under normal operating conditions, system level thermal management is needed to assist with dissipating the heat away from the chip package. A passive heat sink provides a reliable and cost effective method for removing the excess heat. The size and shape of the heat sink depend on the operating conditions of the `C6x device and the characteristics of the system within which it operates. Most of the current consumed by CMOS devices is Alternating Current (AC), which charges and discharges the capacitance of internal nodes, pins, and external pin loads. The current flowing through the `C6x causes the temperature of the silicon die to rise. To maintain device reliability and proper operation, the junction temperature must not exceed the maximum specified junction temperature. As the heat is transferred from the die to the package, the case temperature of the package also rises. The junction-to-case thermal resistance R3jc, together with the maximum junction temperature, are parameters that determine the maximum case temperature Tcmax. Because of these factors, the specification of temperature is given in terms of Tcmax in the Thermal Analysis section of this document. The heat typically flows from the case to the surrounding air up through the heat sink and down through the pins and the board. The heat dissipation through the board material largely depends on the number of power and ground layers inside the board. The portion of the power that is dissipated by the heat sink must first propagate through the case-sink joint. The thermal resistance of case to sink joint can vary depending on the type of joint used, such as thermal epoxy or double-sided adhesive pads. The rate at which the heat is transferred from the sink to the ambient air depends largely on the velocity of the air at the heat sink. The heat flow from the sink rises with the speed of the airflow. SPRA432 10 TMS320C6x Thermal Design Considerations The examples in this section present a method for first order approximation of the size of the heat sink needed to keep the maximum case temperature from exceeding Tcmax during maximum system operating conditions. Following heat sink installation, the actual case temperature should be measured to verify that it doesn't exceed the Tcmax value. Heat transfer analysis can be a complex task depending on the degree of accuracy required in the modeling of system components. A number of computational fluid dynamics and heat transfer tools are available to provide highly accurate results. Experimental methods can be used as well for analyzing heat flow. This document uses a simplified approach to select a heat sink that matches a particular operating environment. The driving parameter in determining the heat flow is the maximum case temperature that must stay below Tcmax at all times during device operation. The system parameters that have first order effect on the case temperature are G Average device power dissipation G Ambient air temperature G Air approach velocity The choice of the heat sink largely depends on those factors, as shown in the following examples. Other factors that can affect heat dissipation include board design/materials and the case to sink attachment method. The relatively long Time Constant of the case/sink combination (around 2 minutes) can effectively smooth out any power peaks that may occur. To validate proper operation of the heat sink, a small hole should be drilled in the center of the sink to place a miniature thermocouple directly on the case (center top surface) to measure the actual case temperature under system's maximum expected operating conditions. Thermal Considerations `C6x device operating conditions that can affect power dissipation: G Operating frequency G Use of power-down (idle) modes G Amount of on-chip activity G Number of functional units exercised every cycle G Frequency of the internal data memory accesses SPRA432 TMS320C6x Thermal Design Considerations 11 G Frequency of the internal program memory accesses G Activity level of on-chip peripherals (DMAs, Serial Ports, etc.) G Rate at which data is being driven on and off the chip System considerations for choosing a heat sink: G Air flow rate over the board housing the `C6x G ambient air temperature G Area / type of joint between package and the heat sink G Board design and layout Thermal Analysis and Heat Sink Selection The following examples demonstrate the method for selecting a heat sink for a typical design. Figure 1 shows the thermal model of the `C6x mounting. Figure 1. Thermal Model Used for Heat Flow Analysis Rsa (sink to air) Rcs (case to sink) (junction to case) Rcb (case to board) Rb (board) Rba (board to air) Rjc Ta Tc Ta Tj air thermocouple attachment sink case/sink joint junction case board power planes and vias air SPRA432 12 TMS320C6x Thermal Design Considerations Example 1: G Specify operating conditions (this system reflects a typical PC operating environment) Pa = 4.2 W average power dissipated by the case Tamax = 40 :C ambient air temperature Vamin = 85 LFM air approach velocity (linear feet per minute) hmax = 9mm height limit for the heat sink (system requirement) R3cs = 0.5 :C/W case to sink thermal resistance (using thermal epoxy) Tcmax = 90 :C case temperature G Estimate the total power that needs to be dissipated by the heat sink, Ps. Ps = Pa -1W (assume 1W dissipation through the board) Ps = 4.2 - 1 = 3.2 W G Compute the maximum heat sink to air thermal resistance R3sa that will maintain the case temperature below Tcmax for the operating conditions specified above. R3sa + R3cs = (Tc -Ta) / Ps R3sa = {(Tc -Ta) / Ps} - R3cs R3sa = {(90 - 40) / 3.2} - 0.5 R3sa = 15.1 :C/W G Choose the heat sink based on the computed maximum sink to air resistance R3sa and the minimum air approach velocity inside the enclosure. The heat sink performance plot below verifies that at 85 LFM minimum air velocity, the sink to air thermal resistance will indeed stay at or below the Rsa value of 15.1 :C/W that is required to maintain the case temperature below Tcmax for the listed operating conditions. Actual experimental measurement of the case temperature should be performed next to verify heat sink performance. Figure 2 gives the performance plot of a heat sink that would satisfy the requirements of the system in Example 1. SPRA432 TMS320C6x Thermal Design Considerations 13 Figure 2. Heat Sink Performance Plot Va - Air Approach Velocity (LFM) 0 100 200 300 400 500 25 20 15 10 5 0 Part No. DW 0045A-24 Dimensions 1.2 x 1.105 x 0.322 in Manufacturer W eb Automation 11411 Plano Road Dallas, Tx 75243 (214) 348-8678 Note: This is an approximate plot. Contact the manufacturer for current data. Example 2: G Specify operating conditions Pa = 6.9 W average power dissipated by the case Tamax = 55 :C ambient air temperature Vamin = 140 LFM air approach velocity (linear feet per minute) hmax = 17mm height limit for the heat sink (system requirement) R3cs = 0.2 :C/W case to sink thermal resistance (using thermal grease) Tcmax = 90 :C case temperature G Estimate the total power that needs to be dissipated by the heat sink, Ps Ps = Pa - 2W (assume 2W dissipation through the board) Ps = 6.9 - 2 = 4.9 W G Compute the maximum heat sink to air thermal resistance R3sa that will maintain the case temperature below Tcmax for the operating conditions specified above. R3sa + R3cs = (Tc -Ta) / Ps R3sa = {(Tc -Ta) / Ps} - R3cs R3sa = {(90 - 55) / 4.9} - 0.2 R3sa = 6.9 :C/W SPRA432 14 TMS320C6x Thermal Design Considerations G Choose the heat sink based on the computed sink to air resistance R3sa and the minimum air approach velocity inside the enclosure. The heat sink performance plot below verifies that at 140 LFM minimum air velocity, the sink to air thermal resistance will indeed stay at or below the Rsa value of 6.9 :C/W that is required to maintain the case temperature below Tcmax for the listed operating conditions. Actual experimental measurement of the case temperature should be performed next to verify heat sink performance. Figure 3 gives the performance plot of a heat sink satisfying the requirements of the system in Example 2. Figure 3. Heat Sink Performance Plot Va - Air Approach Velocity (LFM) 0 100 200 300 400 500 25 20 15 10 5 0 Part No. DW 0045A-17 Dimensions 1.2 x 1.115 x 0.655 in Manufacturer W eb Automation 11411 Plano Road Dallas, Tx 75243 (214) 348-8678 Note: This is an approximate plot. Contact the manufacturer for current data.




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